Constitution of India an Overview

                                                     The Constitution of India

The Constitution of India is the absolute law of India which lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles. It also establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution in the world.

Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar is regarded as the chief architect of Indian Constitution. Basically , Constitution is the only living document, an instrument which makes the government system work. The constitution applies to all the states, Union Territories. Jammu & Kashmir is the only state, where constitution applies with certain exceptions and modifications as provided in Article 370, The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954.

The list of drafting committee associates of Constitution of India  are:
  • Dr B. R. Ambedkar - Chairman
  • K M Munshi (Ex- Home Minister, Bombay)
  • Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer (Ex- Advocate General, Madras State)
  • N Gopalaswami Ayengar (Ex-Prime Minister, J&K, member of Nehru Cabinet)
  • B L Mitter (Ex-Advocate General, India)
  • Md. Saadullah (Ex- Chief Minister of Assam, Muslim League member)
  • D P Khaitan (lawyer). 
  • Sir Benegal Narsing Rau was appointed as the constitutional adviser. He later became First Indian Judge in International Court of Justice in 1950.

Other Committee members:

  • B L Mitter resigned from the committee. He was replaced by Madhav Rao (Legal Advisor of Maharaja of Vadodara). 
  • D P Khaitan passed away and was replaced by T T Krishnamachari.
The archetypal Constitution of India is not an original one. The best brains of our country collaborated the finest features from the constitutions of other countries and modified  it further as per the Indian conditions as well as to to avoid any defect. 

From U.K.
  • Nominal Head – President 
  • Cabinet System of Ministers
  • Post of PM
  • Parliamentary Type of Govt.
  • Bicameral Parliament
  • Lower House more authoritarian
  • Council of Ministers responsible to Lowe House
  • Speaker in Lok Sabha
From U.S.
  • Written Constitution
  • Executive head of state known as President and his being the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces
  • Vice- President as the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha
  • Fundamental Rights
  • Apex Court
  • Provision of States
  • Independence of Judiciary and judicial review
  • Preamble
  • Removal of Supreme court and High court Judges
  • Fundamental Duties
  • Five year Plan
  • Concurrent list
  • Language of the preamble
  • Provision regarding trade, commerce and intercourse
  • Law on which the Supreme Court function
  • Suspension of Fundamental Rights during the emergency
  • Scheme of federation with a strong Centre
  • Distribution of powers between Centre and the states and placing. Residuary Powers with the Centre
  • Concept of Directive Principles of States Policy(Ireland borrowed it from SPAIN)
  • Method of election of President
  • Nomination of members in the Rajya Sabha by the President.

According to The Preamble of Constitution :-

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a 1 SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the 2 [unity and integrity of the Nation]; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES this Constitution.

To look at the updated Constitution of India to know about your Rights, Duties, and what our political system consists of, Click Here